Leaving a year behind after the beginning of the Syrian upheaval, the clashes between Assad’s forces and the Free Syrian Army spread to Aleppo. While the conflict between Shebbiha, pro-Assad armed groups alleged for torturing locals for years, and dissidents got more violent, rebels were attempting to take down the Shebbiha checkpoints. Assad’s forces throughout the year bombarded the city with frequent, severe airstrikes and ground attacks. A high number of civilian casualties led Syrians to immigrate towards Turkey and tent-cities set up around the northern border.

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